Matrixyl is Palmitoyl Penta (or Oligopeptide) peptide; Matrixyl™ 3000 contains two matrikines™, Pal-GHK and Pal-GQPR (Palmitoyl Oligopeptide and Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7) which act in synergy to restore collagen production while stimulating fibroblast cells in the skin, enabling them to significantly reduce the appearance of wrinkles and maintain skin's youthful appearance. Palmitoyl Terapeptide is another breakthrough ingredient which inhibits and reverses glycation damage.
They are messengers of cutaneous restructuration and repair. They activate the neosynthesis of extracellular matrix macromecules providing Matrixyl™ 3000 with a visible anti-wrinkle efficacy. As messenger molecules, matrikines™ are capable of regulating cell activities. They interact with specific receptors to activate certain genes involved in the process of extracellular matrix renewal and cell proliferation. With agethese mechanisms become progressively weaker.
Each component of Matrixyl™ 3000 has been shown to have distinct antiaging effects. In addition, their use in combination has synergistic antiaging effects. In other words, is can’t be said that Palmitoyl Penta- is inferior to Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide or vice versa. Each attacks different aspects of the skin’s aging process. As an added benefit, their use in combination boosts the power of each one.
2008 Update: The name Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-3 has been changed to Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 in the International Nomenclature Cosmetic Ingredient (INCI) Directory.
How Palmitoyl Oligopeptide Works in Skin Care Products
Palmitoyl Oligopeptide (Pal-GHK) is a synthesized version of a protein found in the most common type of collagen. When Pal-GHK is added to cultured human fibroblasts, it stimulates them to produce collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid which are key components of the extra-cellular matrix.
In young skin, collagen fibers are bound together by elastin in a well-ordered network. The holes of the collagen net are filled with a water-saturated gel, the glycan network. This water-soaked net gives the skin its elasticity and turgidity.
Hyaluronic acid is a key glycan which can hold up to a thousand times its weight in water.
As skin ages, collagen production slows. Environmental and other stressors damage the collagen bonds beyond the body’s ability to repair them. This damage to the net causes the glycan network to thin and gradually lose its ability to retain water until it collapses on itself. The gel sags, pulling the epidermis with it. The result: dry, thin, wrinkled, sagging skin. Messages and nutrients can no longer easily pass through the collapsed glycan network from the dermis to the epidermis. Skin healing slows and is eventually incomplete. Skin tone becomes blotchy and uneven.
Using in vitro tests, scientists at Ultra Aesthetics Labs, found that Pal-GHK stimulated collagen IV synthesis by 100 to 327% and hyaluronic acid synthesis by 267%. In vivo, Pal-GHK was found to stimulate collagen synthesis by 30 to 117%. Next they used image analysis to determine the affect Pal-GHK3 had on wrinkled skin after six months of daily application. The six-month results are listed below, though they noted that significant results were seen in two months.
68% decrease in wrinkle density
24% decrease in the volume of wrinkles
51% Surface area containing moderate wrinkles
16% Skin roughness
up to 117% increase overall collagen synthesis
up to 327% increase collagen IV synthesis
up to 267% increase hyaluronic acid synthesis
Glycation is the process by which glucose links with proteins and causes them to bind together, thus stiffening tissues and leading to the complications of diabetes and some of the physiologic problems associated with aging.
Glycation affects the skin's support system—collagen, elastin and other proteins—and leads to wrinkles, sagging, loss of youthful contours and uneven skin tone. Inflammation is normally a protective response to tissue injury or destruction and is an important part of the body’s immune response. It is the body’s way of walling off a harmful agent and the injured tissue.
Up to about age 35 when hormone levels begin to drop, very little interleukin is secreted and its secretion is strictly controlled. However, as we continue to age, the hormonal regulatory system begins to break down and significant levels of interleukins are found in the plasma even when there is no inflammatory stimulus. This results in high levels of inflammatory proteins in the tissues, slow tissue regeneration, tissue rigidity and a loss of healing potential.
Theoretically, if the production of excess interleukins can be suppressed, the inappropriate inflammatory response will not be triggered and glycation damage will be inhibited. This theory was borne out in the lab. These tests results also come from the Ultra Aesthetics Labs.
In vitro, the Ultra Aesthetics scientists found that Pal-GQPR induced a marked dose-dependent reduction in interleukin production. The higher the concentration of Pal-GQPR, the greater the reduction in interleukin production – up to 40%.
UV radiation is known to accelerate interleukin production. When the scientists exposed cells to UV radiation and then added Pal-GQPR, they achieved an 86% reduction of interleukin production. These results show that Pal-GQPR is able to affect baseline levels of interleukin as well as modulate the effects of UV-stimulated over-production.
Now you see how Pal-GHK and Pal-GQPR Work in Combination to Combat the Signs of Aging. We’ve seen that Pal-GHK stimulates the production of collagen, elastin and hyaluronic acid to restore density and elasticity to the skin, as well as to restore its healing communication system; while Pal-GQPR works to inhibit the production of excess interleukin and the resulting glycation damage to the skin.
Scientists at Dermaprin Labs studied the efficacy of the two polypeptides not only independently (with similar results to those above) but also tested them in combination. They concluded, “Palmitoyl Tetrapeptide-7 combined with Palmitoyl Oligopeptide in the product showed a complementary gene activation profile with stimulation of protein remodeling and cell proliferation in excess of what was achieved by either one alone. In vitro, the two peptides showed synergistic effects on the synthesis of collagen I, fibronectin and hyaluronic acid. The clinical studies thus validate the synergistic approach.”